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松下政経塾・塾生研究レポート 〜自治体電力ビジネスの“日本版シュタットベルケ化”の可能性~ The Matsushita Institute Discussion Paper: Comparative study between municipality-operated Power Producer and Suppliers in Japan and “Stadtwerke” in Germany.

(キーワード)電力自由化・電力小売事業・自治体・ドイツ・シュタットベルケ(Keywords)Deregulation of electricity retailing, Municipalities founded PPS, Germany, Stadtwerke


レポート全文ダウンロード: 自治体電力ビジネスの“日本版シュタットベルケ化”の可能性 (PDFファイル:3.3MB)



    (1) 地域エネルギー資源による独自電源の確保
    (2) 独自の電力需給管理システムの保有
    (3) 自治体のコミットメント
    (4) 専門人材の確保



 The deregulation of Japan’s electricity retail market in April 2016 allowed a lot of new entrants other than traditional power companies to enter the market. Such entrants are called Power Producer and Suppliers (hereinafter, refered to as PPS) and some of PPSs are founded by local governments. Municipalities involved in electricity market position their business as public services and in some cases they provide electricity along with water supply and tele-communication service.
 Germany’s electricity market was fully liberalized in 1998, when the situation in Germany was similar to that of present Japan. Then, due to the increased competition, four major power companies have become to occupy the market approximately up to 40%. The rest of the market, is roughly occupied by companies founded in each region, called “Stadtwerke” in German language. The total number of “Stadtwerke” is considered to be more than 1,400 across the country, and in many cases they are also responsible for the operation of public transportation and other public infrastructure, in addition to the supply of electricity, gas, water, etc. There are many different business patterns of “Stadtwerke.” Examples include ones founded and operated by local municipalities only, and those jointly run by several municipalities, while some are partly funded by private corporations. In some cases, under the umbrella of a 100% municipality invested company, an operating firm is established with private funds, whose services range from energy supplies, public transportation, operations of harbors, ferries and swimming pools, housing and urban development, and waste disposal to business activities such as advertisement, radio, and so on. It should be noticed that such “Stadtwerke” makes a considerable contribution in bringing new jobs in a community.
 In this study, PPSs founded by municipalities in Japan were investigated and compared to the precedent cases of Germany “Stadtwerke”. After discussing the possibility of Japanese version of “Stadtwerke,” necessary conditions for its realization are examined.
Although further discussion of business model based on regional characteristics is recommended, the four key points were obtained as below;

    1. Securing unique power supply by regional energy resources
    2. Owning electric power supply and demand management system
    3. Strong municipal commitment
    4. Recruitment of specialists

 As of 2017, regional revitalization is one of Japanese government’s important policies and various measures are being carried out for that purpose. Meanwhile, the reform of power system is also underway, creating new operators of public services such as municipality-operated PPS. If there is any chance of such PPS becoming a Japanese version of "Stadtwerke" in the future, they would not only play a crucial role in regional revitalization, but also provide solutions for better public infrastructure services. I hope this report will help expand the possibilities of municipalitiy-operated PPS business.

Download Report: Comparative study between municipality-operated Power Producer and Suppliers in Japan and “Stadtwerke” in Germany. (PDF 3.3MB)

2017年9月 執筆
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